Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) that has threatened the lives of individuals with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although less severe. Smallpox was eradicated in 1980.
Moreover, this virus still occurs occasionally in some parts of Africa mainly in central and West Africa.
The virus Monkeypox is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae.
This virus was first recorded in 1958 in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the state serum institute during a research on pox-like disease in monkeys.
What is MonkeyPox?
Monkeypox is zoonotic virus transmitted to a human from animals such as monkeys, rat, and squirrel.
This virus affects those in the rural areas and those in the rainforest regions of the Congo basin and western part of Africa.
Transmission of monkeypox
- Contact with body fluids such as blood, cutaneous and mucosal injury of an infected animal.
- Human interaction: transmission of infection can result from contact with infected individuals through skin lesion, infected respiratory tract secretion.
- Placenta inoculation: the virus can be transferred to the fetus through the mother in the womb. This is also known as congenital monkeypox.
Signs and symptoms of monkeypox
The major phases in the sign and symptoms of this virus.
- Incubation phase ( 6 – 16days) this phase is characterized by interval to the onset of the symptoms.
This stage presents two periods.
- Invasion period (0 – 5days) characterized fever, back pain, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph node), myalgia (muscle ache) and asthenia (lack of energy).
- Skin eruption period (1 – 3days) these always appear after the fever, followed by rash often begins in the face and gradually spreads all over the body.
Diagnosis of money pox
The following laboratory diagnosis is done by laboratories to identify the virus.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
- Virus isolation by cell culture
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
- Antigen detection tests
Treatment and vaccine of monkeypox
Though the World health organization (WHO) has not given a profound treatment for the virus, it has been recorded that vaccination against smallpox fights about 85% of monkeypox.
Individuals with early vaccination against smallpox are less prone to the virus.
Prevention of monkeypox
- Restricting animal trade
Restricting or banning buying and selling of animals in rural areas and city will help reduces the spread of the virus within and outside Africa.
- Public enlightenment an educating the public about the virus will help reduces the spread of the virus.
- Close contact with infected individuals should be avoided. Personal protective equipment such as a glove, facemask should be worn when taking care of infected individuals.
- Bushmeat such as monkeys and squirrel should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
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